Remove duplicate lines based on a field

Recently while working on formatting some data files for further processing, I had to remove duplicate lines from the file based on a particular field. After trying out cut and grep commands, I was finally able to solve it with a very concise awk command/script.

The command was so concise but still was packed with so much information and it helped me to learn more about the awk scripting language. I thought of writing about it here so that it is useful for others and also I know where to search for it, when I needed it :)

Feel free to use it in whatever way you want, if it solves your problem as well.

Input and output data

Let me first explain the input data I had and the output that I was expecting.

Consider a file which has the following lines. Each line has four fields.

Now assume that we want to remove duplicate lines by comparing only the second field. We want the output to look like this.

Command

Get ready for the surprise. The actual command is just this.

Explanation

awk script execution and printing

awk script is executed for each line and if the result is true then the line is printed. If the result is false then the line is not printed.

Associative arrays

The awk language supports associate arrays, similar to the ones found in PHP. The script x[$2]++ fills up an associate array. The key used here is $2 which refers to the second field and x is the variable name. You can use any name for it.

The array is populated for every line. This is how the array would look like after each line.

Conditional evaluation

The ! operator results in a boolean evaluation which determines whether a particular line should be passed on to the output (printed) or not.

When the field is not present in the array, then it results in a zero value which is false. The ! (not) operator evaluates it to non-zero, which results in a true value and the line is passed on to the output (printed). When a duplicate is found, the array returns a non-zero count, which is true, but the ! converts it to false and that line is not passed on to the output.

The expanded version of the above command would be